Charcoal - High Carbon hard porous product obtained by pyrolysis (decomposition at high temperature) timber without air access.
The heat of combustion of charcoal depends on the type raw material and usually in the range 30 ... 35 MJ / kg (7000-8100 kcal / kg). This quality in combination with the almost complete absence of flame and smoke caused by burning the widespread use of charcoal in the home - in fireplaces, braziers and barbecue.
Due to the large porosity of wood charcoal has a very high adsorption property. In comparison with coal ash it has a minimum, contain the minimum amount of harmful impurities (especially sulfur and phosphorus). For these reasons, the charcoal is widely used: in metallurgy, chemical industry, for the manufacture of glass, paints, plastics, insulation materials, etc. Also, wood charcoal is used in instrument manufacture and printing industry for grinding and polishing of parts in the manufacture of black powder.
In addition, he serves as raw material for activated carbon and its use as a feed additive for livestock. However, the most promising from a business perspective is the use of charcoal in the production of crystalline silicon. XXI century - the century of electronics, which is impossible without of pure crystalline silicon. Accordingly, since the production of silicon will continue to grow, and will continue to grow demand for wood charcoal. At the present time in Russia, created several large-scale production of crystal silicon. The need for each of them in wood charcoal on a few orders greater than existing in Russia amounts to manufacture. In this regard, the establishment of wood charcoal as an independent business is highly promising. It is necessary to mind that wood charcoal can receive not only from solid wood, but from its small waste such as sawdust and chips. To do this small granular waste pre-processed into briquettes. Technology of production of briquettes from wood and agricultural wastes currently worked through. We have a whole series of such industries.
Figures needed for the calculations:
1. 1 m3 of wood depending on the type you can make 140 ... 180 kg of wood charcoal.
2. The density of wood charcoal is directly dependent on the density of wood of which it is made (coal has a density of spruce up to 260 kg/m3 Pine - up to 300 kg/m3, birch - up to 380 kg/m3).
3. Moisture of charcoal: when unloading from the furnaces and retorts are 2 ... 4%, while keeping it increases up to 7 ... 15%.
4. Ash of charcoal should be no more than 3%.
5. Wholesale purchase price of wood charcoal at the beginning of 2011 - 10 ... 15 rubles / kg (the price of small wholesale sales - 16 ... 22 rubles / kg, retail ~ 30 ... 34 rubles / kg).
Briquettes - compressed particles of plant origin, having the form of cylinders with a diameter of more than 25 mm. or having a polygon cross-section (sometimes - with a hole in the center). Briquettes can be made of wood, peat, straw, husks, reeds, sapropel, coal dust and many other types of plant material, as well as solid waste, waste paper, used tires...
Pellets (granules) - chopped and dried plant material, pressed into a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 25 mm. Pellets can be made of wood, reeds, peat, sapropel, grass, husk, straw, coal dust and many other types of plant material, as well as from the debris...
Granulated forages - feed for farm animals, obtained by pressing (granulation) and crushed dried herbs or a special mixture (feed).
Grass meal - natural protein and vitamin feed (an additive in animal feed) to farm animals made from grass (green weight), harvested in the early stages of vegetation, quickly dried at high temperature and milled into flour...
Granulated organic fertilizer - crushed and dried at high temperature manure or litter (dung), pressed into pellets.
It is necessary to consider one important factor: in fact, manure and litter are the main products of meat and poultry, because animals and birds produce these products in tens of times more mass than meat, milk and eggs...
Wood flour - dry crushed wood, the bulk (95%) which passes through the a sieve with a size of cells 1.25 x 1.25 mm. or less. Particles of wood flour, usually have an elongated shape, so the exact size is not regulated by them. When sifting they may be held in mesh diagonals, so their linear dimensions, of course, may be more linear size of the lumen of the sieve...